白衣沽酒绮罗生

来日绮窗前,寒梅著花未。

【original】English Review Summary——High school Firs

                                       English Review Summary                                                 

——High school First Grade

English Book 1

Unit1 Friendship

【topic】

Title:How to Improve Interpersonal Relationship?

  Today our life is becoming better and better, but there is still a problem, that is how to Improve interpersonal relationship?

  In my opinion, first we should respect others, as an old saying: if you want others to respect you, you need respect others first. Second, we shouldn’t be selfish. If we are selfish we can not make a true friend. Third, we should listen to others` opinion with an open mind. And we have to always ready to help. At last we shouldn’t be inferiority; we need to be outgoing and friendly.

 Therefore, I am sure we can improve interpersonal relationship.

 

【Grammar】Direct Speech and Indirect Speech

引述别人的原话叫直接引语,用自己的话转述别人的话叫间接引语。一这两种引语都是宾语从句,但直接引语放在引号内,不用连词连接;间接引语不用引号,通常用连接词与主句连接

  (1)陈述句变为以that引导的宾语从句

  He said, "I'm very glad.”他说:“我很高兴。”

  He said that he was very glad.他说他很高兴。,

  (2)一般疑问句变为以whether或if引导的宾语从句

  He said,“Can you come this afternoon,John?” 他说:“约翰,你今天下午能来吗?”

  He asked whether John could come that afternoon.      他问约翰下午是否能来厂

  (3)特殊疑问句变为由who, what, when There等疑问词引导的宾语从句

  He said,“Where is Mr. NI'ang?”他说:“< xmlnamespace prefix ="st1" ns ="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />王先生在哪儿?”

  He asked where Mr. Wang; was.他问王先生在哪儿

  (4)间接引语中的谓语动词与主句中的谓语动词在时态上要保持一致。直接引语改为间接引语时,如果主句的谓语动词为过去时态,宾语从句中的动词时态则要随主句的谓语动词时态作相应的改变。其变化规则如下表所示

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时(但客观真理仍用一般现在时)

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

一般过去时

过去完成时(但从句中有明确

一般将来时

过去将来时

  ①“I am a student,”lie said.

  ----He said he was a student.

  ②“I have learnt the poem by heart,”he said.

  ----He said he had learnt the poem by heart.

  ③“Li Ping found his lost book,”he said.

  ----He said Li Ping had found his lost hook.

  直接引语中的谓语动词为一般过去时时,如果与一个具体的表示过去时间的状语连用,变为间接引语时,时态可以不变。

  My father said to me,“I read the hook in 1986.”

  ---- My father told me that lie read the hook in 1986.

  当直接引语表达的是客观真理时,变为间接引语时,时态可以不变。

  The geography teacher said to us,“The earth turns around the sun.

  ----The geography teacher told us that the earth turns around the sun.

  (5)直接引语变为间接引语时指示代词、地点状语、时间状语和某些具有方向性的动词应作相应的改变,列表如下:

直接引语

间接引语

this(这)

that(那)

these(这些)

those(那些)

now(现在)

then(那时)

today(今天)

that day(那天)

yesterday(昨天)

the day before(前一天)

last year(去年)

the year before(前一年)

ago(……以前)

before(……以前)

tomorrow(明天)

the next day(第二天)

next month(下个月)

the next month(第二个月)

here(这儿)

there(那儿)

come(来)

go(去)

bring(带来)

take(拿去)

  ①She said to me,“I live here five years ago.

  一She told me she lived there five years before.

②“I will do it today,” he said.

一He said he would do it that day.

③“I did it yesterday,”lie said.

一He said he did it the day before.

④He said to me, “I will see her next week”

一He told me lie would see her the next week.

(6)句型变化

①直接引语为疑问句时句型的变化

直接引语为疑问句时,变为间接引语除注意在人称、时态和状语等方面作相应变化外,还应注意:

a.间接引语应改用陈述语序。

B.特殊疑问句的疑问词应保留。

c.一般疑问句、选择疑问句或反意疑问句在变为间接引语时要用连词whether(或if )

②直接引语为祈使句时句型的变化

当直接引语为祈使句时,变间接引语时主句的谓语动词应根据直接引语的口气换用ask, invite, advise, warn, tell, order等词,而原直接引语中的谓语动词则变为不定式。

Unit 2 English around the world

topicEnglish language and its developmentdifferent kinds of English

GrammarDirect Speech and Indirect Speech

The Week-long Holiday
1.表示欢迎:
2.提出对度假安排的建议:
3.提醒应注意的事项。
Dear Xiao Wang,
    I am very glad to learn that you are going to visit me during the week-long holiday. My parents will also be happy to see you again. I am sure you will enjoy every minute here.
    I know you are fond of swimming. A river lies not far away from my home. We can go swimming there. I think it would be very pleasant and refreshing to swim in such hot summer days. In very big room of my home there is an air-conditioner. We can watch TV, play games or read hooks very comfortably at home.
    A mountain about two miles away from here is beautiful and it is worth touring. We can go there on foot. When we climb to the top of the mountain, we can have a wonderful bird-eye view of the whole village.
    Just phone me before you set off. There is no need for you take anything. I'll prepare everything for you.
    I am looking forward to seeing you soon.
                                                                                                Yours,
    Zhang Ying

 

                         Unit 3 Travel Journal

topicTravelingdescribing a journey

Travel
1. 连续不断的美景使人感到愉快。
2. 旅游可以增长人们的知识。
3. 然而,过多的旅游会使人感到疲劳。
     A succession of beautiful scenery makes one feel delighted. A long stay in the same surroundings to make everything the same. Routine work often makes one feel bored  But if you take a trip or a long journey on your holidays to some scenic spots or historic sites, that will make great difference.
     Travel can widen one's knowledge. The far[her you go, the more you will learn about different politics, economics, customs as well as geography. If you travel the whole world some day, you will fully understand the globe on which we live.
     However, too much travel causes tiredness. You get on a bus or a taxi, you travel on the train or in a plane, being patient with the hours needed on your mute from one place to another, that will make you exhausted after a while. 
旅游
     看不完的美景使人感到愉快。长期呆在一个地方令人乏味。日常工作常使人感到厌倦。假如你在假期中去名胜古迹旅游,情况就不同了。
     旅游可以增长人们的知识。你走得越远,你就会学到不同的政治、经济、风俗和地理知识。如果有朝一日你周游世界,你就会完全懂得我们所生活的这个地球。
     然而,过多的旅游会使人感到疲劳。不管你乘坐公共汽车或出租车,还是乘坐火车或飞机从一个地方到另一个地方,你得耐心的坐着熬时间,这很快就会使你疲劳。

 

Grammar现在进行时表将来时

Where are we going?

When are we leaving?

When are we coming back?

现在进行时除表进行外,还可以表示将来。现在进行时表将来时常用“意图”“安排”或“打算”的含义。这种现在进行时比较生动,给人一种期待感。

  它常表最近或较近的将来,所用动词多是转移动词。如:

  (1) I’m going. 我要走了。

  (2) I'm coming.我要来了。

  (3) When are you starting? 你什么时候动身?

  表将来的现在进行时除用于转移动词外,亦可用于某些非转移动词。如:

  (1) I’m meeting you after class. 课后我找你。

  (2) What are you doing next Sunday? 下星期你打算干什么?

  (3) She is buying a new bike soon. 她不久将买一辆新自行车。

  但偶尔也表示较远的将来。如:

  When I grow up, I’m joining the army. 我长大了要参军。

  表将来的现在进行时有时含有“决心”的意思,多用在否定结构中。如:

  (1) I’m not going. 我不走了。

  (2) I’m not waiting any longer. 我不再等了。

  有时也用在肯定结构中。如:

  I’m backing out. 我要打退堂鼓了。

  用这种现在进行时与对方讲话时可变成命令,不过语气比较温和。如:

  (1) You are staying. 你留下吧。

  (2) Don’t forget: you are taking part too. 不要忘记:你也要参加。

  同一般现在时一样,现在进行时也可在时间、条件或原因状语从句中表示将来。如:

  (1) when you are passing my way, please drop in. 你什么时候路过我们家,请进来坐。(用于时间状语从句

  (2) If they are not doing it, what am I to do? 如果他们不干,那我该怎么办?(用于条件状语从句

  (3) She is going to the dentist tomorrow because she is having a tooth filled.

  表示将来的现在进行时也可用在间接引语中,表示说话人相信它将是事实。如:

  He said he is going tomorrow. 他说他明天走。

  表将来的现在进行时有时从属于将来时态。如:

  (1) On election night we’ll be telling you what’s happening in various places in this country. 到了选举的夜晚,我们将把全国各地的情况告诉大家。

  (2) when I have time, I’ll come down to the school to see how you’re both doing. 我有空时,会来学校看你们俩的学习情况。

  典型例题

  (1)He said he ________ me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment.

  A. had not given; had not succeeded     B. would not give; succeed

  C. will not give; succeed               D. would not give; will succeed.

  答案B. 在时间,条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有He said,故为过去式。主句用将来时,故选B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。

  (2) 表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动。

The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天10点开门。(实际上每天如此。)

Unit 4 Earthquake

【topic】

1.     Basic knowledge about earthquake

2.     how to protect oneself and help others in disasters

【Grammar】

The attributive clause

定语从句在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词引导的定语从句举例

1, who, whom, that

2, which 用来指人或物

非限制性定语从句

whom指人

which that 通常指人也可指物

that指人时

when指时间

why指原因

  位置:先行词之后

  例:Those who are willing to attend the party , sign your name please.

  定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的从句,其作用是作定语修饰主句的某个名词性成分,相当于形容词,所以又称为形容词性从句,一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。

  引导定语从句的关联词称为关系词,关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等,绝对没有“what”;关系副词有where, when, why等。关系词常有3个作用:

  ①连接作用,引导定语从句。

  ②代替先行词。

  ③在定语从句中担当一个成分。

  注:关系代词有主语、宾语之分。一般whom作为宾语。关系代词在从句中作主语,宾语,表语,定语等,关系副词在从句中作地点状语(where)时间状语(when),原因状语(why)。

定语

  定语用来限定、修饰名词或代词,是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语(动词不定式短语、动名词表示的)汉语中常用“……的”表示。主要由形容词担任,此外,名词代词数词分词副词、不定式以及介词短语也可以来担任,也可以由一个句子来担任。单词作定语时通常放在它所修饰的词之前,作前置定语。短语、从句作定语时则放在所修饰的词之后,作后置定语。

  被定语从句修饰的名词、代词称为先行词。如“The man”、“The book”。

编辑本段关系代词引导的定语从句举例

  关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在从句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主词保持一致。

1, who, whom, that

  这些词代替指人,“whom”作宾语指人,“that”既可作主语又可作宾语(作宾语可以省略),可以指人也可以指物。在从句中所起作用如下:

  (1)Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他是那个想见你的男人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

  (2)He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

  (3)The man whom you spoke to just now is our English teacher. 你刚刚说话的那个男人是我们的英语老师。

2,Which 用来指人或物

  (用作主语、宾语,作宾语时可以省略),例如:

  (1)Prosperity which / that had  never emergence. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在从句中作主语)

  (2)The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped.你拿那个包裹快要散开了。(which / that在从句中作宾语)

whose

  (只用作定语)

  “whose”表示谁(可以为人也可以为物)的(东西)

  例:A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.双亲都死了的孩子叫做孤儿。(“whose”表示那个孩子的双亲)

  He lives in a room whose window faces south.他住的那个房子的窗户是朝南的。(“whose”表示那个房子的窗户)

  关系代词:在句中作主语宾语定语

  1. that既可代表事物也可代表人,“which”代表事物;它们在从句中作主语或宾语,“that”在从句中作宾语时常可省略关系词,“which”在从省略。[Example gratia:This is the book (which)you want.]

  2. 不及物动词+介词”的介词的宾语代词“which”放在它原来的位置。

  3. 代表物时多这时的that常被省略;

  c)被形容词最高级修饰时;既有人又有物时;

  e)整个句中前面已有“which”,“wh”行

  关系副词:在句中作状语

  关系副词=介词+关系代词

  Why =for which

  Where =in/ at/ on which(介词同先行词搭配)

  When =during/ on/ in/…… which(介词同先行词搭配)

  1. “where”是关系代词,当然也不用“that”引导。

  By the time when you arrived in London, we had stayed there for two weeks. 到你到达伦敦的时候,我们在那里已经待了两个星期。

  I still remember where I met her for the first time. 我仍然记得我第一次见到她。

  Each time when he goes to business trip, he brings a lot of living necessities, such as towels, soap, toothbrush etc。他每次出差都带来了生活必需品,如毛巾,肥皂,牙刷等其他东西。

  3. 当从句的逻辑主语是some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, everything或nothing时,常用“there is”开头。

  There is somebody here who wants to talk to you. 这里有人要和你说话。

  分作进一步说明,通常是引导词和先行词之间用逗号隔开,将从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立。

编辑本段非限制性定语从句

  意义:

  非限制性定语从句起补充说明作用,缺少也不会影响全句的理解。在非限制性定语从句的前面往往有逗号隔开,如若将非a lovely garden. 我去年买的的房子带着个漂亮的花园。

  This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本我已经读过三遍的小说很感人。

  3. 非限定性定语从句可将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:

  He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

  Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

  4. 有时as也可用作关系

  5. 在非限定性定语从句中,不能用关在从句中做主语

  (1)The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 在踢足球的男孩们是一班的。

  (2)Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way. 昨天,我帮助了一个迷路的老人。

whom指人

  注意:关系代词“whom”在口语和非正式语体中常用“who”代替,可省略。

  如果在从句中做宾语,就用“whom”或“who”。

  He is the man who has an English book. 他就是那个有英语书的男人。

  You just met the person who was my friend. 你刚刚见到的那个人就是我的朋友。

which that 通常指人也可指物

  在定语从句中做定语,表所有。

  (1)He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个朋友的父亲是医生。

  (2)I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in.我曾经住在一座现在已经倒塌的房子中。

  “whose”指物时通常以以下结构来代替:

  (3)What is the color .Football is the game which is liked by most boys.

  颜色是什么。足球是大多数男孩都喜欢的游戏。

  (4)This is the pen(which)he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天刚买的钢笔。

that指人时

  相当于“who”或者“whom”;指物时,相当于“which”当前头有最高级序数词“all”不定代词时必须用“that”。

  在定语从句中做主语、表语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略。

  (5)The number of the people that/who come to visit the city each year rises one million. 每年来这座城市观光的游客数目上升了100万。

  (6)Where is the man this morning? 今天早上这个男人在哪?

when指时间

  在定语从句中做时间状语也可做连接词用。

  (1)(1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school. (2) The time when we got together finally came.

why指原因

  在定语从句中做原因状语。

  (1)Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane.

  (2)I don't know the reason why he looks when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up.

编辑本段介词和关系代词

  1)介词后面的关系代词不能省略。

  2)“that”前“Do you”作介词的宾语,且可以省略。例如:

  (1)The school(that/which)he once studied in is very famous. “that/which”可以省略。

  = The school I which studied is very famous. “which”不可省略。

  (2)Tomorrow I will bring here 用,如:look for, look after, take care of等。

  T This is the watch which/that I am looking for.(T=正确)

  F This is the watch for which I am looking.(F=错误)

  2. 若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时用“whom”,不可用“who”或者“that”;指物时用“which”,不能用“that”;关系代词是所有格时用“whose”

  (1)The man with whom you talked is my friend.(T)

  The man famous.

  (2)I bought many books yesterday, three of which are written by Lu Xun.

关系代词

  关系代词(一般情况下)“that”可用在从句做主语,谓动词的宾语,但是不能做介词的宾语。

  “which”指物,在从句句中作主语;

  “whom”在从句中作宾语;

  “why”在从句中修语,先行词通常是“the reason”;

  有时“why”也可用“for + which”代替。

  例:A doctor who looks after people's health.

  主语 谓语 先行词 定语从句修饰先行词

判断介词和关系代词

  方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。不及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词;而及物动词后接宾语,则要求用关系代词。例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 

  判断改错:

(错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

(错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

(对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. 

(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 

  例. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held?

  A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

  解析: 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。 

  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、宾语时,选择关系代词(who, whom, that, which, whose);

  先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词(“where”地点状语,“when”时间状语,“why”原因状语)。

编辑本段先行词和关系词

  1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here.(“Whoever”可以用“anyone who”代替)

  2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school. (“what”可以用“all that”代替)

  但这两句句子已经不是定语从句了,是名词性从句。因为定语从句一定要有先行词,而名词性从句没有。将“Whoever”、“what”分别用“Anyone who”、“all that”代替后,才是定语从句,先行词分别是“Anyone”、“all”。an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.

  A. it B. that C. which D. he 

  答案C。

  此为非限定性从句,不能用“that”修饰,而用“which”、“it”和“he”都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选“he”句意不通。

  2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.

  A. what B. which C. that D. it 

  答案B

  英语语法上行不通。

  3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.

  A. that B. which C. as D. it 

  答案B  

  “as”和“which”在引导非限宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: 

  (1)importance to me, as my own is.

  在一定的语言环境里,有些名词可以具有形容词的性质。这些名词主要是那些表示人的身份、职业、状态的名词。值得一提的是,在这些具有形容词性质的名词之后,引导定语从句的关系代词不能用“who / whom”。

  (2)动词短语先行成分。

  这种动词短语既可是限定形式也可是非限定形式。如果是动态动词短语,它们在从句中就一般有限定或非限定形式的替代动词“do”和“as / which”一起代替。“do”可以出现,也可以不出现,但不能用其它动词代替。

  (3)句子作先行成分。

  这句子可以是整个主句也可以只是主句中的一个从句。有时是连续几个句子,有时甚至可以是一个完整的故事。

  二、“as/which”特殊定语从句在句中的位置。

  由于先行成分的构成成分”特殊定语从句在句中的位置有以下几种情况:

  1. 形容词做先行成分时:形容质的which”特殊定语从句置于先行成分之后。

  2. 动词词短语作先行成分时,“as / which”特殊定语从句置于先行成分之后。但是,当从句中含有表示主观意志的插入成分时,“as”特殊。

  3. 句子作先行成分时:“as”特殊定语从句的位置较灵活,可以置于先行成分之前、之中或之后。但如果先行成分是直接引语,“as”特殊定“s”特殊定语从句与否定词的相对中则常用一些表示“合乎自然规律”、“众所周知”或“经常发生”等意义的词语,如natural, known to all, usual等。

  3. 有无状语意要是方式状语意义,而“which”特殊定语从句则无状语意义。“as”特殊定四、关系代词“as”与“which”一词。如:

  Freddie, as might be expected, was attending the conference.

  1. “Which”作主语时,谓语动词不限,主动被动皆可,只是谓语动词为被动语态时助动词“be”省略。

  2. “as”和“which”都可以在特殊定语从句中宾语。

  3. “as”和“which”在特殊从句中作补语。如:

  We thought him a gentleman, as/which he could never be.

  “as”特殊定语从句中可以主谓倒装,“which”从句中则不能主谓倒装。

  如果先行成分不是主语补语或宾语补语,关系代词用“which”而不用“as”。如:

  He talked like a native, which/as he hardly was.

  4. “which”在特殊从定法

  (1)不用that的情况 

  (a)在引导非限定性定语从句时。

  (错)The tree, which is four hundred years old, Is very famous here. 

  (b)介词后不能用。 

  We depend on the land from which we get our food. 

  We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

  (2)只能用“that”作为定语如“last, just”修饰时,只用“that”。 

  (d)先行词为序数词、数容词,又有物时。

  (f)先行词指物,在主句中作是“the way”或“the reason”时,“that”可作关系副词,也可省略。

  (h)主句的主语是疑问词“who /which”时,避免重复要用“that”.

  举例:

  Is this the book that you borrowed in the library?

  这是你在图书馆借的书吗?

  Who that break the window should be punished.

  谁打碎了窗户。 

  All that is needed is a supply of oil.

  所需的everything that he had stolen to the police. 

  那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。

  “that”必用

  1、先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰。

  2、是序数词或被序数词修饰。

  3、不定代词指物。

  5、被“only”、“the every”、“no”、“one of”等修饰

  6、主句有“which”、“who”、“whom”

  7、“there be”句型中

  8、如果有两个从句,其中一个关系代词已用了“which”,另一个关系代词宜用“that”

  9、先行词在主句中作表语,或者关系代词本身作从句的表语是宜用“that”

  “that”在作宾语时可省略。

10、不是任何时刻关系词作主语宾语是能用“that”难点分析“you”

注意1:the only, the same, the last ,any, little等修饰时

(1) This is the very good dictionary that I want to buy,

(2) After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned.当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用who

(3) Jack is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting?

5、当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时

(1) Who is the man that is standing there?

(2) Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

6、当先行词既有人,也有动物或者物体时Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned?

7.当关系代词在定语从句中做表语The village is no longer the one that it used to be 10 years ago.

8.当在which引导的定语从句as和which引导非限制性定语从句,有相同之处也有不同之处。

(1) a developing country.

(2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent.

(3) John, as you know, is a famous writer.

(4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe.注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用which。

(5) Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry.

9、当先行词受such, the same修饰时,常用as

(1) I have never heard such a story as he tells.

(2) He is not such a fool as he looks.

(3) This is the same book as I lost last week.注意:当先行词由the same修饰时,偶尔也用that引导定语从句,但是和由as所引导的定语从句意思不同

(4) She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她注意:定语从句such…as …与结果状语从句such… that…的区别:as在所引导的定语从句中作主语,宾语;that在结果状语从句中不做成分 (6)He has such a good laptop as I want to buy.

  (but= who don’t)

  (五)区分定语从句和同位语从句

  1、定语从句修饰先行词,它和先行词是修饰关系;

  同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,是补充说明的关系。

  (1)The planets clear. 同位语从句

  2、定语从句由关系代for advice.

  (3)The fact that the moon moves around the earth is known to all.

  (4)The fact is that the moon moves around the earth.

  [定语从句]介词+关系词

  1)介词后面的关系副词不能省略。

  2)“that”前不能有介词。

  3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词“when”和“where”互换。例如:

  This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。

  This is the house where I lived two years ago.

  Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗?

  Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

编辑本段误区提醒

  当表示时间或地点的名词作先行词时,要判断出它们在从句中作状语还是主语或宾语。作状语时用关系副词,反之用关系代词。

  典型例题:I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together.

  A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when

  解析:. 两个先行词the day都是表示时间的名词,但第一个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作状语,因此要用关系副词when. 第二个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作动词spent的宾语,因此要用关系代词which或that来引导定语从句.

  答案:A

Unit 5 Nelson Mandela—a modern hero

 

【topic】The qualities of a great person;the lives of some great people

There's a hero 有一位英雄
If you look inside your heart 如果你探寻内心
You don't have to be afraid 你不必害怕
Of what you are自己是什么
There's an answer 有一种答案
If you reach into your soul 如果你深入自己的灵魂
And the sorrow that you know 你所经历的痛苦
Will melt away将随之消散

And then a hero comes along 会有一位英雄向你走来
With the strength to carry on 带着继续奋斗的力量
And you cast your fears aside 你会把恐惧抛开
And you know you can survive 你知道自己能挺过来
So when you feel like hope is gone 所以当你感到希望似乎破灭
Look inside you and be strong 审视自己,保持坚强
And you'll finally see the truth 最终你将明白
That a hero lies in you 英雄气魄就在你身上

It's a long road 漫漫长路
When you face the world alone 当你独自面对世界
No one reaches out a hand 没有人伸出手
For you to hold 让你握住
You can find love 你一定能找到爱
If you search within yourself 如果能在自己身上找到勇气
And the emptiness you felt 你曾感到的空虚
Will disappear 将会消失

Lord knows 上天知道
Dreams are hard to follow 梦想难以追求
But don't let anyone 但是别让任何人
Tear them away 把它们打消

Hold on坚持住
There will be tomorrow还有明天
In time最终
You'll find the way你会找到自己的路

 

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